When you are about to land a job, you will be doing yourself a disservice if you don't ask for more money. Salary statistics say that 1/5 of people don't negotiate their salary. If you think about it, that's just like buying a used car without negotiating the price.
So below are couple of steps you could follow to better negotiate your salary, both when you are looking for a job, and when you are trying to get a raise.
First, get prepared. Salary.com
etc. are all good resources to learn more about average pay. Using social network (LinkedIn for example) as well, you can discover your fair market value or maybe also run into a company you want to work for.
Second, use negotiating tactics. There are techniques such as mirroring, paraphrasing and just using silence can help with your negotiation. For example, if the employer offered you a position but with lower salary than you expected, just pause for a while, be silent. That tend to mount the pressure for the employer to bump up your salary, because they may think you are not satisfied with the offer.
Third, if the company doesn't have extra cash, ask for more vacation, travel and flexible work schedule.
Lastly, if you have a job already and look for a raise/bonus, make sure you keep track of your accomplishments. When it is time to negotiate a raise, pull out those facts and show your boss.
可以问公司这个问题: "How did you come up with this number?"
因为 any good company will be able to answer this question (typically by referencing industry averages, benchmarks, etc). 如果这家公司不能给一个确切的答案的话，那你需要三思而行了。
During negotiation, you can also ask for a big raise after the evaluation period. Make sure they put this into the offer letter. This worked for me.