To browse websites that are restricted by the firewall, people would use either anonymous private surfing proxy services, or if the person is smart enough, could just setup a proxy service using ssh/plink, and route all http/https traffic from home through it. Below is a favorite way to do this using ssh/SOCKS and SOCKS tunneling.
1. Make sure that you have sshd program running on your remote linux server, that's all you would need on the server side for proxy.
2. On your desktop/client side, download and install the plink program which is part of the putty package. For your convenience, here is a copy of plink to download
3. Now you want to setup the proxy connection from your desktop to the proxy server. So bring up a command and run
plink root@<your server ip address> -pw <password> -N -D 127.0.0.1:7070
4. In the local browser, configure the browser to establish a connection through the proxy/socks server like this:
1) Firefox browser
Click the drop down menu and select Options -> Advanced -> Settings -> Connection Settings, check the box marked "Manual proxy configuration". Enter 127.0.0.1 for SOCKS Host field, 7070 for Port field.
Click OK all the way through to exit the Options window. You may now use Firefox to browse the web over your SOCKS proxy.
2) IE browser
In IE, choose Internet Options -> Connections, click on "LAN settings" under the Local Area Network (LAN) settings.
Check the box that reads "Use a proxy server for your LAN, then click on "Advanced" button. Enter 127.0.0.1 for Socks field, 7070 for Port field.
3) Chrome browser
Chrome shares the same network settings with Internet Explorer, so once setup in one browser, the other browser would reflect the same settings.
So above is a simple way to do this via an SSH tunnel. Other than this, the other way is to download and install proxy server software such as Tiny Proxy.